Asparagus beans: cultivation and care in open ground, copta

asparagus beans cultivation and care in open ground copta Blog
Black Eyed Peas

For the cultivation of asparagus beans , it is necessary to allocate a site with fertile and loose soil, not oversaturated with nitrogen, sunny and protected from sudden gusts of drafts.

The ridges are prepared in the autumn season: they dig up with the introduction of organic matter and mineral fertilizers per 1 m2 – 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride. The best predecessors will be: tomatoes, onions, cabbage, eggplant, cucumbers. In crop rotation , legumes are recommended to be returned to their original planting site – no earlier than after 3 years. Before planting seeds, the earth must be loosened.

Growing methods 

Beans

From the selected variety, methods for cultivating beans are also selected.

Beans

All bush species, with a straight-growing massive stem, are sown in lower rows with an interval of 25 cm and a width between rows of 45 cm; a staggered order of sowing seeds can be applied.

For a climbing type of legumes, in which the stem reaches 3-3.5 m in length, a suitable support must be provided:

  • A trellis on which ropes are stretched. The shoots will stretch along the ropes, better ventilated and illuminated by sunlight. Good view for harvesting.
  • Support, fence, wall, etc. on which ropes or nets are pulled.
  • “Tepee” method or nesting. Around the bulk bed, round in shape and with a diameter of up to 80 cm, they build a structure, like a hut, from 5-6 wooden stakes, having strengthened them well. Planted in a circle 8-12 pcs. plants."Teepee"

Beans can perfectly decorate and decorate buildings and fences.

Planting and caring for asparagus beans

Landing dates

asparagus seeds

The best time for planting legumes is the second decade of May, when the threat of frost has passed and the physical ripeness of the soil has come.

Preparing seeds for planting

  • Sort the seed material, intact and larger beans are soaked for 10-15 hours in warm water. It is very important not to overexpose them in water.
  • Carry out disinfection: hold for 2-3 minutes in a solution of boric acid.
  • Seeds are sown in grooves to a depth of 4-5 cm, pre-watering with hot water.
  • We cover the beds with a layer of humus and cover with a film, for the fastest germination of seeds.
  • After 7-10 days, thinning is performed, the most healthy and largest shoots are left, and the rest are pulled out.
  • Hilling is carried out when plantings reach 10 cm in height.

Care

  • Timely watering . Before the appearance of buds, watering is carried out once a week, the earth should not be dry.
  • Loosening and weeding . The first loosening is carried out when the sprout reaches 6-7 cm in height. The second loosening and hilling should be carried out in two weeks, the third – at the junction of the bushes.
  • Top dressing is carried out with mineral fertilizers: during the budding period (superphosphate – 40 g / m2) and after the plants have faded (potassium salt – 10 g / m2). It is recommended to add wood ash during the ripening period of the pods.
  • Pest protection .

Features of harvesting

The pods are harvested after 1-1.5 weeks from the time the fruit ovaries appear, if the harvest is later, the fruits lose their taste value: a delicate sugar taste. After harvesting, a new period of flowering and fruit ripening will begin. On the seed material, the pods are left on the bush until fully ripe.

Varieties of asparagus beans

The best varieties of asparagus beans:

  • Fatima
  • Bona
  • Winner,
  • Panther,
  • Caramel,
  • Melody,
  • royal purple pod,
  • oil king,
  • sweet courage,
  • Blue Lake,
  • Neringa,
  • Fakir,
  • Spaghetti.

Variety “Neringa”

Beans "Neringa"

Neringa is an early ripe bush variety. The fruits are 15-16 cm long, without a pigment layer, the valves are fleshy, narrow and juicy. The formation of pods from milky ripeness occurs after 50-59 days. Differs in high productivity and unpretentiousness, perfectly transfers heat and cold, application – universal.

Variety “Fortex”

Beans "Fortex" 

The variety was bred by breeders from France. It has a delicate pulp and a fresh taste, the pods are 20-30 cm long with chocolate-colored beans. The fruits do not contain partitions and hard valves, they are prepared quickly and easily. This bean contains many useful properties. It is better to grow it in greenhouses or on the south side, as it has a long growing season of 75-80 days.

Variety “Gina”

Beans "Gina"

Variety – early ripe, bush 40-50 cm in height. The pods are fiberless, the color is pale green, slightly curved, 17 cm long. Bred by French breeders. Taste properties: delicate, suitable for canning, as well as soups, side dishes and freezing. The yield is very high and stable.

Variety “Skuba”

Beans "Skuba"

Released in Germany. Variety – mid-season, high-yielding, bushy. Landings reach 40-45 cm in height. The fruits are oval and straight, dark green in color without a parchment layer, 12-15 cm long. Taste qualities: used in any form, including for freezing. Planted in open ground since May at a soil temperature of 10-15°C.

Variety “Bona”

Beans "Bona"

An early ripe variety of domestic breeders, maturation occurs at 50-75 days. The pods are round and straight, with a slightly noticeable bend towards the tip, length 13-16 cm, without a parchment layer, beans are glossy, white in the amount of 6 pcs. The bush is compact up to 40 cm high. The plant is resistant to diseases, has a high yield, is universal in use.

Grade “Gold Mine”

Beans "Gold Mine"

The variety is distinguished by its ultra-sweet taste, for which it is very loved by children and adults. The growing season is from 55 days, belongs to the early ripe class. Massive upright bushes bear fruit in clusters, which brings an increased yield of about 800 grams per bush of golden pods.

Growing asparagus beans in Siberia

The harsh Siberian climate and short summer must be taken into account when cultivating legumes:

  • Give preference to early varieties.
  • Sowing is carried out at the end of May, sometimes beans are planted with seedlings.
  • Seeds are sown mainly without soaking, dry.
  • Hilling sprouts is carried out above 10 cm.
  • Curly varieties are subject to tying.
  • When it gets cold, plants need to be covered.
  • Harvesting is carried out as the pods ripen, early ripe beans are harvested in August. The pods are laid out or hung under a canopy in the air for ripening. If unexpected frosts come, then the plants are pulled out along with the roots and also left to ripen.

How to Harvest Your Asparagus Bean Seeds

We leave the pods until the bean is fully ripe, and harvesting begins after the leaves and stems dry and turn yellow. Next, they begin to dry the collected pods in a dry place, then exfoliate. Seeds are stored at a temperature of +5°C, they can retain their properties for 5-6 years.

Asparagus beans: two types under one name

Phaseolus vulgaris

The first bean dishes were tasted by Europeans in the 18th century. Dishes were prepared from beans of the species Phaseolus vulgaris, brought by the Portuguese and Spaniards from the lands of America.

Over time, the classification of bean varieties gradually improved: parchment-free legumes were bred – there are no layers inside the shoulder blades. These types of plants grow in elongated, cylindrical pods, which contain dietary beans, they retain the juiciness of the valves for a long time. In addition, now you can choose interesting types of asparagus beans from Asia. These cowpeas or cowpea beans are grouped together under the name – Vigna unguiculata.

With good care, cowpea bean pods can grow up to 1 m long, unlike American, domestic or European types of asparagus beans, which grow no more than 40 cm in length.

Vigna beans

The closest relative of asparagus beans is considered to be beans from India – butterfly, mung bean and other types of legumes popular in Africa, the Middle East and the Asian region. These two types of crops are annual plants that are cultivated in both climbing and bush forms. They produce juicy pods and seeds of various colors and sizes.

American varieties of asparagus beans must necessarily be subjected to heat treatment, and fruits of the cowpea class in milky-wax ripeness are eaten raw. Vigna beans are also useful in sprouted form, not only in the usual form of preparation. Its only drawback is a heat-loving crop, so it will have to be grown in central Russia using greenhouses.

To grow cowpea fruits, you need to follow a few rules:

  • Select varieties based on early maturing classes of bush types. Unlike climbing varieties, they ripen faster, but their pods are shorter.
  • Purchase varietal or hybrid seeds from domestic or Chinese breeders, they are less capricious than Japanese producers.
  • The cowpea variety of American breeders is gaining popularity.

Growing string beans

Fvsol

String beans are divided into two varieties: bush and curly. Like any other southern crop, green beans love heat, so they start planting it in the ground quite late – in the last days of May, the beginning of June. By this time, the ground will warm up enough and the threat of frost will go away. This type of legume does not like acidic, heavy and sandy soils. Leave the place under the culture sunny, without drafts. Drought has a detrimental effect on crops. To make legumes easier to care for, they can be mulched with straw.

Bed preparation

If the composition is acidic, it is necessary to add wood ash or dolomite flour to it, in any case, it will only benefit. The location of the beds should be without wind. The best predecessors will be: potatoes, tomato, cabbage. Since autumn, the area under the ridges is dug up and organic fertilizers (6 kg / m2), superphosphate (35 g / m2), potassium chloride (20 g / m2) are applied. In the spring, potassium will need to be added before planting – this element is most needed by legumes than the rest.

Seed preparation

It is recommended to warm the beans naturally in the sun for 7 days before sowing. You can carry out this procedure by placing the beans on the windowsill, on the sunny side. Then all the seeds are dipped in water for a day, periodically changing the water (4 times).

Sowing

Beans

Bush species are sown in rows or in a checkerboard pattern. Place 2 in each well. beans, keep a distance between them of about 25 cm, leave 35-45 cm between rows. Close up to a depth of 2-7 cm, depending on the composition of the soil, the lighter the soil, the deeper the seeds are planted.

Curly types are treated differently. On the prepared land, props are installed, and holes are dug, with a distance of 20 cm from each other in the very vicinity of the support. In a week, sprouts will begin to appear. On the 10th day, the seedlings spud. The second hilling is carried out when the sprouts reach 15 cm in height, hilling is repeated as the soil settles during irrigation. To increase fruiting, the plant is pinched when it reaches 2 m in height. If there is a threat of frost, plantings must be covered.

top dressing

It is carried out twice with a mineral complex of fertilizers – in the budding phase and before fruiting.

Watering

Moisture is very important for legumes, so watering is carried out especially intensively during the forcing of lashes and buds.

Harvest

On the 10th day after the formation of legume ovaries, you can harvest. When overexposure of the pods on the whip, it will cause a loss of taste.

Types and varieties of beans for open ground

When choosing seeds, you need to consider that these legumes come in three types:

  • Curly . The stem of this culture can reach up to 5 m in length, it will need to be tied up and pinched. Popular varieties: Borlotto, Ad Rem, Winner, Fatima.
  • Bush . Plants stretch up to 40-60 cm in height. The best varieties: Paloma, Golden Time, Oil King, Crane, Saxa, Purple Queen.
  • Semi curly. The plant will grow up to 150 cm in height.
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