What diseases can attack our garden at any time of the year. These include bacterial blight, hole spot, moniliosis, moniliasis, scab and many others. The most common diseases of plants in the winter period – bulging, withering, frost and soaking. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure proper care of trees, carry out certain work in the garden during the winter, which will help all garden crops to survive the cold period of the year.
Root protrusion of fruit trees and shrubs
The real scourge of late planted crops is the protrusion of the root system, as when planting too late and the onset of low temperatures, it does not have time to develop well. Root protrusion of fruit trees and bushes occurs due to repeated thawing and freezing of the top soil layer. When water fractions in the soil freeze, ice crystals expand the soil, causing it to rise and lift the poorly rooted plant outward. When the soil begins to thaw, the soil settles, filling the resulting voids, and the tree or shrub remains in place, as if suspended a bit and the roots remain bare on top. Maybe you’ve noticed how, after winter, the roots in strawberries are out a bit, this is from the same story.
Plants with a weak root system are prone to bulging. Young seedlings planted in the fall have just such a weak root system, because they do not always have time to root well before such unstable weather.
You can prevent trouble by planting earlier in the fall or spring. Another way out of such a situation is planting seedlings with simultaneous digging of a wooden post nearby and fixing the tree or bush on it.
Well, if this has already happened to your tree (as in the photo above), then be sure to back up the soil with a mound to the base. This will protect the protruding roots from cracking during unstable weather with sudden changes in temperature. The photo above clearly shows that a mistake was made when planting the apple tree.
Freezing, subfreezing of garden trees
Heat-loving crops are characterized by frequent freezing of both individual parts and complete death, especially in snowless winters with strong winds. What to do to avoid such a situation in the garden – frozen tree?
Snow retention saves the garden. For this purpose, artificial earthen embankments or barriers of improvised materials, such as wooden boards, are arranged. In winter, periodically fill the areas in which the wind blew away the snow cover with snow.
In winters without snow apply digging, covering with insulating materials, peat, lapnik.
Shrubs have the hardest time, because due to their natural features, the wood on the root neck and the lower part of the shoots matures in the last place. This often leads to their damage by frosts, so it is recommended to obligatorily dip or cover them for the winter.
Soaking the root system of the plants
In areas with a close occurrence of groundwater, as well as in low places during the spring snowmelt, gardens suffer from soaking. Worsens the situation by a sharp rise in temperature during the day and a fall at night. Obligatory condition for garden cultivation in such conditions is a device drainage system. Around fruit and shrub crops is effective digging grooves to divert water. Flowerbeds are better to arrange on the bulk of the high beds.
Weeping of plants
Hatching often occurs with untimely release of the planting circle from the winter shelter in early spring. During this period, plants breathing intensifies, a lot of moisture evaporates, the covering material gets soaked, and as a result the oxygen content under it sharply decreases, the cells die (suffocate).
Most often this happens when covering with easily caked and rotting materials such as straw, sawdust, fallen leaves, as well as airtight materials such as agrotextile. Rainy and cold summers, as well as early frosts and snowfalls, worsen the situation. In this case, excess moisture remains in the tissues between the cells, which turns into ice, while under the dense snow cover the temperature remains at 0°C. Under such conditions, intensive respiration continues, but oxygen access is limited by ice and snow. The result is depletion of the plant, infestation by pathogens and death.
The peculiarity of this disease is its late diagnosis in fruit trees. Bark and cambium of the lower part of trunk, root neck and lower skeletal branches hardening occurs in stone fruit crops. The tree continues to develop for some time at the expense of previously accumulated substances, but often dries up by midsummer. The first signs are darkening of the trunk, cracking and gumming. But even if the bark of the trunk has recovered in the current year, during the season the plant has spent a lot of effort on treatment, and, as a rule, this leads to poor tissue maturation. As a result, the next year a repeated uprooting occurs.
Young orchards are exposed to such a disease as weeping more often and die in 1-2 seasons, and in mature plantings this process can last for several years. The main reason is considered unsuitable growing conditions.
Heat resistance and frost resistance
About how fruit trees and shrubs will feel in winter, you need to take care in advance, even at the stage of selecting seedlings when laying the garden.
As you know, even quite frost-resistant varieties can freeze in not very cold winters. And this is all because gardeners confuse two different concepts: winter hardiness and frost resistance. Do you distinguish between these concepts?
Winter hardiness is the complex resistance to all adverse factors in winter, such as:
sudden changes in temperature,
That is, this is a very important characteristic of any variety, which, as a rule, is not specified in the description, because it requires many years of observation to check it.
Frost resistance depends on the age of the plant (the younger the tree, the lower it is).
Frost tolerance is the critical temperature that the buds of the variety can withstand. The frost resistance of plants is genetically determined and does not change under the influence of any factors.
Every gardener should know the frost-resistance zone of his or her region so that he or she will not be disappointed in the spring.
However, when deciding which plant to buy, you should bear in mind that the right frost-resistance zone does not guarantee that the plant will grow well in your garden. Gardeners should consider soil type, rainfall, day and night temperature differences, daylight hours, heat and humidity.
So, with the arrival of winter, all plants in the garden need help from their owner. Therefore, you should take good care of trees, pay attention to their bark throughout the life of the tree in your garden. This will help prevent disease, prevent frostbite, and cracked trees.
Have a great winter in your garden!