Chili pepper is a spicy, pungent herb that has been used in cooking since ancient times. Due to its beneficial properties, it is widely used in medicine and cosmetology. In order to have year-round supplies of spicy fruits, many gardeners began to grow peppers at home.
- Preparing seeds for sowing
- Soil preparation
- Sowing seeds
- Seedling care
- Chili pepper varieties for indoor cultivation
- Caring for indoor peppers in the winter
- Method 1
- Method 2
- Growing peppers in a greenhouse
- Pepper care in greenhouse conditions
- Growing chili peppers in an open garden
- The best predecessors for pepper are
- Landing is carried out as follows
- Outdoor plant care
- Seed collection
Preparing seeds for sowing
Before sowing, you need to make sure that the seed is suitable for growing and has been stored for no more than three years. To do this, prepare the saline solution as follows:
- water – 1 liter;
- salt – 350 grams.
Pour the seeds into this solution and leave for 10 minutes. The seeds that float to the surface are thrown away, since they will not germinate, and those that have settled to the bottom are thoroughly washed, poured into a cloth and soaked for a day in warm water. After 24 hours, pour the seeds on a plate and put in a warm place. A week later, they are planted in pre-prepared soil. Before sowing, the seeds are immersed for 25 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
Soil for growing seedlings can be purchased at a specialized store or prepared independently by mixing the following ingredients in equal proportions:
- soddy soil;
- peat ;
- sawdust ;
Before use, the soil is recommended to be calcined in an oven at temperatures up to 90 degrees to destroy pathogenic microbes and insect larvae.
Seeds are planted in peat pots or wooden boxes. At the bottom, it is necessary to make holes to remove excess moisture from the soil. Before use, rinse containers with a hot solution of strong potassium permanganate. Pour small pebbles at the bottom as a drainage layer, pour a layer of soil on top. The thickness of the earth layer should not exceed seven cm. The day before sowing, the soil is plentifully watered. Seeds are sown in grooves 5 mm deep with an interval of 5 cm from each other. Close up with a thin layer of soil and cover the box with polyethylene.
The box is placed in a well-lit room with a temperature of 22-25 degrees. A container with seeds can be installed on the windowsill after a few days. It is not recommended to do this right away, since the temperature on the windowsill differs from the temperature in the room. When installing boxes on a windowsill, they must be covered with a cloth, as the seedlings are afraid of cold air. Every day, polyethylene is removed for 10 minutes to ventilate the seedlings and moisten the soil. The first shoots will appear in 8-10 days. After the appearance of sprouts, the polyethylene is removed and the boxes with seedlings are moved to a well-lit place.
If the seedlings have two true leaves, they are transplanted into separate ceramic pots. Before transplanting, seedlings are watered abundantly and transplanted with a clod of earth so as not to damage the root. When transplanting, the plants are buried in such a way that the lower leaves are at a distance of two cm from the soil surface.
In order for the plants to be strong and bear fruit well, it is necessary to carry out a number of care measures:
- Watering is carried out every three days. For irrigation, use water at room temperature that has been settled for 24 hours. It is impossible to water seedlings with cold water, as they stop growth. Watering should not be plentiful, as excess moisture will lead to decay of the root system. When the seedlings grow a little and become stronger, reduce watering to 1 time per week.
- Loosening should be carried out after each watering to prevent moisture stagnation in the soil and the formation of a crust on the soil surface, which prevents the penetration of oxygen to the roots. Loosen the soil carefully so as not to damage the roots of plants.
- In case of insufficient lighting, it is necessary to organize additional lighting with the help of phytolamps or fluorescent lamps. With a lack of light, the seedlings will be weak, and the fruits will be small. Lamps are installed above the plants at a distance of 30 cm.
- The temperature in the room in the summer should be 23-26 degrees, in winter, 17-18 degrees.
- Mandatory daily airinghowever , it must be borne in mind that the seedlings are afraid of drafts.
- Top dressing is carried out every 15 days. To do this, use mineral fertilizers rich in nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus.
- During the flowering period, for better pollination, pots with flowering plants must be shaken once a day.
- When aphids appear on seedlings, treat it with infusion of wormwood or garlic.
Chili pepper varieties for indoor cultivation
For growing hot peppers on the windowsill, varieties with small fruits are most suitable. This variety of peppers has a compact root system and develops well in a flower pot. The most popular are the following varieties:
Early maturing variety. The bush is 20 cm high, the fruits are oblong, slightly curved, up to five cm long. As the fruit ripens, the color of the fruit turns from yellow to red. Grows well in light fertile soil in good light and high humidity.
Superearly abundantly fruiting variety. The height of the bush is up to 40 cm. The fruits are cone-shaped with a pronounced sharpness and aroma. In the process of ripening, the color changes from purple to red.
Mid-season variety. The ripening period is 110-115 days from the moment of germination. The elongated fruits are red in color. The taste is spicy. Bush of medium height.
The height of the bush does not exceed 35 cm. The fruits are oblong, seven cm long, collected in a bouquet. When ripe, they turn red. The taste is bitter-bitter.
Hybrid variety of early ripening. The height of the bush is 45-55 cm. The fruits are cone-shaped, up to seven cm long. All fruits are from 18 to 26 grams. In the period of full maturation, they have a burgundy-red color. The taste is sharp, pronounced peppery aroma.
The most pungent variety. Fruits on one bush can be of various colors:
- light chocolate.
Caring for indoor peppers in the winter
After the end of fruiting and harvesting, watering is reduced, but care must be taken to ensure that the soil does not completely dry out.
When the plant drops its leaves, the branches are shortened a little and taken out to a room with a lower temperature. In February, the bush is brought into a warm room and transplanted into a larger pot, fresh soil is added, and watering is gradually increased.
If you plan to harvest fruits from a bush in winter, you need to organize additional lighting. This can be done with fluorescent lamps. Watering is carried out regularly, but moderately. Top dressing is made every 15 days.
Growing peppers in a greenhouse
Pepper seedlings are planted in the greenhouse at the age of two months, if there are at least 10 leaves on the seedlings. Two weeks before transplanting, seedlings must be hardened by taking them out into fresh air on sunny days.
At the time of transplanting seedlings, the soil in the greenhouse should warm up to + 16 degrees. The transplant procedure is carried out in March.
The beds must be made high. The width of the beds is at least 100 cm. Before transplanting, the greenhouse must be well ventilated.
Seedlings are planted at intervals of 25-30 cm from each other. A denser planting can cause fungal diseases. When planting, it is not recommended to deepen the seedlings too deeply. Only the root system should be in the soil.
Pepper care in greenhouse conditions
In order for the plants to be strong and actively bear fruit, it is necessary to follow a number of recommendations for care:
- The temperature in the greenhouse throughout the entire period of growth of pepper to maintain 19-24 degrees. At lower temperatures, the plant slows down growth, and yields decrease.
- Good lighting . With a lack of natural light, it is necessary to provide additional lighting with fluorescent lamps. In the absence of good lighting, the stem of seedlings is stretched and deformed. In addition, 80% of fruit fall is observed.
- Watering is carried out regularly, moderately. For irrigation use separated warm water. Watering is carried out under the root, trying not to fall on the leaves.
- Loosening is performed after each watering to prevent moisture stagnation in the soil and to ensure oxygen access to the roots of the plant. Loosening should be done with extreme caution so as not to damage the root system.
- The formation of the bush is carried out in order to obtain large fruits. To do this, three stems are left on the trunk, removing excess side shoots in the sinus from which the pod grows.
- Top dressing is carried out when the ovary appears. To do this, use an ash solution prepared in the following proportion:
- water – 11 liters;
- ash – 1 glass.
The ash is poured with 1 liter of boiling water, insisted for 12 hours, then added to the remaining water.
- The garter is carried out in the case of growing tall varieties. Wooden pegs are used for garters.
Growing chili peppers in an open garden
The site for planting pepper must be prepared in the fall. For growing hot peppers, the site on the south side of the house, protected from direct sunlight and drafts, is best suited. It is not recommended to plant pepper in the area where they grew:
- tomatoes ;
The best predecessors for pepper are
- green manure.
Pepper prefers slightly acidic or neutral soils. To normalize acidity in the soil during digging, add 1 glass of lime per 1 sq. meter. With neutral acidity, it is recommended to add when digging per 1 sq. meter 7 kg of humus. Dig the bed to a depth of 25 cm.
By the time of transplantation in the beds, it is necessary to remove weeds, loosen and level the soil. Landing is carried out in the evening or rainy weather. The holes are spaced 30 cm apart, the distance between rows is not less than 65 cm.
In order for the seedlings to better adapt after transplantation, it is necessary to water it abundantly 6 hours before the procedure. Water for irrigation is used warm, heated in the sun.
Landing is carried out as follows
- Before planting, 2.5 liters of water are poured into the holes and the moisture is allowed to soak the soil.
- Seedlings are transplanted with a clod of earth to avoid damage to the roots. If the seedlings were grown in peat pots, then they are planted along with the pot.
- The seedlings are placed in the hole and covered with earth, making sure that the root neck is on the surface of the soil.
- The soil around the seedling is carefully compacted by hand.
Outdoor plant care
Watering is carried out two days after planting. After watering, the ground is mulched with sawdust or dried grass. Further watering is carried out every seven days. When the ovaries appear on the seedlings, watering is done every 5 days.
Top dressing is carried out three times:
- the first one and a half weeks after planting. To do this, a glass of ash and a solution of superphosphate are added to chicken manure diluted 1:10 (40 grams of superphosphate per 10 liters of water);
- the second dressing is applied during the period of fruit formation. Diluted 1:5 cow dung or 1:10 chicken manure is used as a fertilizer;
- the third dressing is applied during the period of active fruiting.
Loosening is carried out after each watering. The aisles are loosened to a depth of ten cm, removing the resulting crust that prevents oxygen from reaching the roots. It is best to carry out this procedure in the morning, the next day after watering. During the period of bud formation, it is recommended to hill the bushes to a height of up to 12 cm.
Pasynkovanie perform every 10-14 days. It is necessary to remove all shoots growing below the first branch. It is also necessary to thin out the crown to ensure sufficient light and oxygen supply to the branch.
So that the fruits ripen well and the bushes do not break under their weight, it is recommended to tie the bushes to wooden pegs.
For harvesting seeds, it is necessary to select the largest fruits that have reached maturity. When the fruit becomes soft, wrinkled, it is torn off, cut into length and left to dry easily. After two or three days, the core with seeds is taken out. Seeds are separated from the core and laid out on a saucer. The saucer is placed in a dark dry place and left for two weeks to dry. Dried seeds are poured into paper envelopes and stored until sowing in a dry place without direct sunlight. Harvested seeds with proper storage remain viable for 3 years.
When extracting seeds from chili peppers, it is necessary to work as carefully as possible so that the juice of the plant does not get into the eyes or skin of the face. After finishing the procedure, wash your hands thoroughly with soap at least three times.
Growing chili peppers does not require much expense or effort. Adhering to the recommendations of experienced farmers, even a novice gardener can grow it.