What you need to know about gladioli
The originality of the flower, the amazing pattern of corrugation in combination with the range of color shades delight everyone who sees this miracle. Gladiolus – flowers for every taste, they have noble elegance, solemnity, and exquisite rigor. For those who love gladioli, planting and caring for them is usually not too difficult.
Gladiolus are perennial bulbous plants. The underground part is a corm planted in the spring in the ground, on which roots are formed that feed the plant and hold it upright. As the corms grow, new roots grow, and tubers (children) form around the bottom.
The height of the stem with the peduncle is of great importance. If the stem is short, the variety is unsuitable for industrial cutting. In such plants, the cut has to be made near the corm, which negatively affects its quality.
The viability of corms depends on the period of cultivation, variety and agricultural technology.
At five-year-old corms, aging occurs, they are no longer used. Such planting material often dies during storage or, even worse, after planting in the ground. Their inflorescences usually come with fewer buds and bloom later. Old corms are easy to distinguish from young ones. They are usually very large, flat, with a wide bottom (2 or more centimeters). In order to grow young, healthy corms, it is necessary to plant children annually, thus renewing the planting material. Healthy planting material is the key to high quality flowers.
Corms are taken out of storage 2 weeks before planting and cleaned from integumentary scales. This must be done carefully, as it is possible to damage the sprouts that have appeared. If corms affected by scab or wireworm come across, remove damaged areas to healthy tissue and treat with brilliant green. Plants with affected vessels (veins) must be discarded. The tool after each operation should be disinfected. Before planting, pickle the bulbs for 1-2 minutes in a suspension of foundationol (200 gdrug for10 lwater). You can soak for an hour in a solution of trace elements or a growth stimulator, or in aloe juice. Soak tubers only in a pink solution of potassium permanganate (1 gon the10 lwater). Before soaking, the tubers are not completely cleaned, but only part of the covering shell is torn off. It is better not to soak the tuber buds in solutions of growth stimulants, sometimes, on the contrary, it inhibits growth properties. This happens with overdried tubers during storage.
Planting flowers begins as soon as the soil is ready. The children are planted first. In the early stages, it is better to plant them unsprouted, while late planting – hatched. Planting depth is different, from 6 to10 cm, since the diameter of the children is different. Less deepening is required in heavy clay soils. The depth of planting bulbs also depends on their size; large planted deep15 cm, small – about10 cm.
Many years of experience in growing gladioli, planting and caring for them, showed that mulching the ridge after planting with organic fertilizers (humus – 1.5 buckets per1 sq. meter) greatly facilitates the care of plants. With this application of fertilizers, it is not necessary to loosen the soil, the number of weeds is reduced, the water regime improves, and after each rain or watering, the plants receive natural top dressing. In addition, 4-5 fertilizing with mineral fertilizers or daily mullein infusion is carried out per season. How much and what kind of dressings to carry out can only be determined by the grower himself – it depends on the soil, lighting, temperature and other factors. According to the development of the plant, top dressing should be distributed as follows. The first – with a predominance of nitrogen – when the second true leaf appears, the second – with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium – during the formation of a flower bud, the third – with potassium, phosphorus – with the appearance of an inflorescence from the axils of the leaves, the fourth – with potassium, phosphorus – during flowering, the fifth – with potassium ,
How to properly clean and store gladiolus corms
The quality of corms depends on the choice of harvesting period. Cold damp weather is often the cause of plant diseases, so you should not linger with harvesting. In addition, many children are lost in damp soil, which partially overwinter on the site, which further leads to clogging of pure-grade planting material. In early September, early flowering plants should be removed. If the children have acquired a color characteristic of this variety, it’s time to dig them out, but if they are still white, it’s too early, next year they will sprout poorly. Late flowering varieties have to be harvested in the middle or even at the end of September. Immediately after harvesting, wash the corms with running water and dry well – this contributes to their better preservation in the winter. Children from the old corms must be immediately separated, since it can serve as a source of disease. Before storing the corms are dried for 2 months. Then you need to inspect all planting material, remove diseased corms, put the rest in boxes bottom down, in 2 rows. It is good to store the boxes in the basement at a temperature of 3-7 degrees. A small amount of planting material can be stored in household refrigerators in the vegetable compartment.
Diseases and pests of gladioli
Growing gladioli, avoiding diseases and pests, is rarely possible. At the first signs of the appearance of diseases and pests, it is urgent to remove all diseased plants with a lump of soil on the roots and disinfect the place of growth.
Fusarium is a ubiquitous disease. The leaves of plants turn yellow, become striped, then turn brown and dry. Corms rot, reddish-brown spots can be found on them, the roots turn brown. The disease progresses during flowering. To prevent the disease, corms are etched in a suspension of foundationazole or topsin before planting. After harvesting, the corms are heated for a week at a temperature of 35 degrees. During the dormant period (in December), they are heated in a water bath at 55-53 degrees for 5 minutes, and then cooled sharply in cold water and dried thoroughly. The resumption of planting in the infected area is possible after 5-6 years.
Sclerotinia is ubiquitous. It starts on the lower part of the stem, the leaves turn yellow first, and later die off. On corms in places of attachment of covering scales, affected tissues of a grayish-brown color remain. Weakly affected corms after treatment (removal of affected tissues) can be planted. The fight is the same as with Fusarium.
Septoria – hard rot – is also a ubiquitous disease. During wet weather, reddish-brown spots with a dark brown border appear on the leaves. If you do not take action, the spots increase, become almost black. On the bulbs, spots can be found after removing the integumentary scales. They penetrate deep into the tissue of the bulb, but do not affect the vessels. Unlike scab, the spots in this disease have irregular outlines. In addition to the same control measures as with Fusarium, at the first signs of the disease, the plants are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid or a solution of copper sulfate.
Botrytiosis is a brown rot of corms. The disease appears at the end of the vegetative period. Rounded brown spots form on the ground parts of the plant. In wet weather, the spots are covered with a gray fluffy napet. In affected corms, the core turns into a soft, porous mass. High soil and air humidity, dense planting contribute to the strong development of the disease. Control measures are the same as for Fusarium.
Penicillin rot of corms. The main cause of the disease is poor storage conditions: high humidity, insufficient ventilation, the presence of mechanical damage. Reddish-brown spots appear on the bulbs, which then become covered with a green coating. Control measures: thorough drying of corms after digging and their proper storage.
Scab. If gladiolus are sick with scab, reddish-brown spots appear on the underside of the leaves. The spots gradually increase. With increased soil moisture, the disease intensifies. The tops of the leaves turn yellow and dry. The bulbs have black spots on the scales; when removed, ulcers are visible. At first, the spots are yellow, watery, when dried, they become shiny with sharply defined raised edges. Bacteria are introduced into the soil with affected planting material and are carried by soil pests. To combat, alkaline soils are acidified and diseased plants are destroyed.
Mosaic – a dangerous viral disease, manifests itself in the form of yellow streaks, small spots or strokes on the leaves. It is transmitted by sucking pests, when cutting flowers and with planting material. In order to prevent other plants from getting sick, sick plants are culled and immediately burned.
Gladiolus has not only diseases, and pests can seriously affect gladioli. Harm is caused by the larvae of click beetles – wireworms. To prevent them from starting, weeds, especially wheatgrass, should be destroyed in a timely manner. Gladiolus thrips – small winged insects of dark brown color up to1.5mm. Their larvae are yellow-brown. Flowers affected by thrips become discolored. After rain, small holes are visible along the edges of the flower. With a strong spread, sometimes the flowers do not open, as if glued together. Corms are affected at storage temperatures above 10 degrees. They develop crusty brown spots. Control measures: pickling corms with karbofos or infusions of garlic, tobacco, calendula.