Grapes in the Urals are planted from the south, planting is done in a hole deep 70 cm, width 1 meter… Crushed stone or gravel is laid on the bottom in a layer of 6-8 cm, then 200 gsuperphosphate and 2 buckets of rotted manure. Mixed with fertile soil, poured with water. Landing obliquely to a depth of 35-40 cm, the soil level during planting should be at 3-4 cmabove the divergence of the shoots of seedlings. After planting – watering.
In the first year of cultivation, they strive to get at least 2 strong shoots. All excess shoots are removed. In the second year, immediately after opening, each shoot is shortened, leaving 3-4 buds. By the end of the second year, two sleeves should be formed on both sides of the seedling and there are two shoots on them. In the third year, fruit links are formed at the end of the sleeves. The pruning is done according to the combined principle. Its essence: the lower outer shoot is cut short by 3-4 eyes, and the upper inner shoot 8-10 eyes long is left (fruit arrow). Together, they are called the fruit link. In the third year, peduncles appear on the shoots, but they should not be left more than 4-5, so as not to weaken the bush.
The next year, the fruit arrow is removed, from the grown shoots on the replacement knot, two shoots are pruned, as in the previous year: the first shoot has three buds, the second – 8-10.
In subsequent years, the number of fruit links increases with the growth of the bush.
It is impossible to grow a good harvest of grapes without proper pruning. The formation of the bush is achieved annually by a combination of pruning, debris, pinching and chasing. Pruning is done in the fall, and only sterile shoots are removed in the spring. Passionking is carried out with a strong thickening of the bush, the stepson is not completely removed, 2-3 lower leaves are left. The minting consists in the fact that in strongly growing shoots, the tops are removed with a pruner to the first developed leaf. The harvest ripens at the end of August. In the fall, two buckets of rotted manure are brought in,200 gsuperphosphate for digging. Feeding with bird droppings (mandatory after two weeks of fermentation)10 lon the bush. Good feeding with ash (300-400 g on the 10 l water), the vine is sensitive to a lack of magnesium – 250 g magnesium sulfate on 10 l water for spraying the bushes (repeat spraying the bush with a solution of magnesium sulfate in two weeks).
Taking care of the grapes is easy. At + 10 ° C, open the vine, put it on. Dissolving buds and shoots from the beginning to the end of May. Shoots grow quickly, wintering buds are laid on them, inflorescences grow. Work is carried out carefully, since young shoots break off easily. The flowering phase is 8-14 days. The optimum temperature is 25-30 ° C, when the temperature drops, the color crumbles, and the roots die at -5 -7 degrees, so it is better to grow grapes in a shelter. Photophilous, does not tolerate darkening, is not picky about soils. For wintering, they are removed from the supports and laid on the ground. Cover with burlap, roofing felt or foil. Wintering of vines can take place in a ditch 15-20 cm…
Propagating grapes by cuttings
Grapes in the Urals are propagated by cuttings. Cuttings are harvested in the fall with a thickness of 8-10 mmfrom a ripe three-year-old vine with 4-5 buds. For two days they are soaked in water, and then laid for storage in a basement or pit (temperature up to +7). In a hole, it is better to cover the vine with sand or keep it on a rack in an open plastic bag. To grow seedlings faster, you need to start preparing planting material from winter in room conditions on the south window. The optimum temperature is 25-28 ° C, watering in a week. So that the top layer of the cutting does not dry out, it is poured with paraffin. At the end of April, the seedlings begin to gradually harden. Landing in the ground on May 10-15. Growing seedlings is also possible in the open field. With proper care, the roots appear on the 20th day.