When growing grapes, planting is done from the south, digging a hole deep 70 cm, width 1 meter… Before planting grapes, crushed stone or gravel is laid on the bottom of the pit in a layer of 6-8 cm, then 200.0 superphosphate and 2 buckets of rotted manure. Mixed with fertile soil, poured with water. You need to plant obliquely to a depth of 35-40 cm, the soil level when planting should be at 3-4 cmabove the divergence of the shoots of seedlings. After planting, watering. In 1 year, they strive to get at least 2 strong shoots. We break out all unnecessary shoots. For 2 years, immediately after opening, each shoot is shortened, leaving 3-4 buds. By the end of the 2nd year, 2 sleeves should be formed on both sides of the seedling and there are 2 shoots on them. For 3 years after planting, fruit links are formed at the end of the sleeves. The pruning is done according to the combined principle. Its essence: the lower outer shoot is cut short by 3-4 eyes, and the upper inner shoot 8-10 in length is left (fruit arrow). Taken together, they are called the fruit link. For 3 years, flower stalks appear on the shoots, but they should not be left more than 4-5, so as not to weaken the bush.
The next year, the fruit arrow is removed, from the grown shoots on the replacement knot, two shoots are pruned as in the previous year – 1 shoot, three buds, the second 8-10. In subsequent years, the number of fruit links increases with the growth of the bush.
Formation of grape bushes
The formation of a bush is achieved annually by a combination of pruning, debris, pinching shoots, chasing. Only with these methods can a good harvest be grown. Pruning in autumn, only sterile shoots are removed in spring.
Passionking is carried out with a strong thickening of the bush, the stepson is not completely removed, 2-3 lower leaves are left.
The minting consists in the fact that the tops of up to 1 developed leaf are removed from strongly growing shoots with a pruner. The harvest ripens at the end of August. In the fall, 2 buckets of rotted manure, 200.0 superphosphate are introduced, for digging in the summer and spring, feeding with bird droppings (after 2-week fermentation)10 lon the bush. Good top dressing with ash 300.0-400.0 grams on the 10 l water, the vine is sensitive to a lack of magnesium – 250.0 magnesium sulfate per 10 l water, re-spraying the bush with a solution of magnesium sulfate after 2 weeks.
Care consists in watering, feeding and shelter from frost. At +10 degrees C, open the vine, put it on. Dissolving buds and shoots from the beginning to the end of May. Shoots grow quickly, wintering buds are laid on them, inflorescences grow. Work is carried out carefully, since young shoots break off easily. The flowering phase is 8-14 days. The optimum temperature is 25-30 degrees C. When the temperature drops, the color crumbles, and the roots die at -5-7 degrees. Therefore, it is better to grow grapes in a shelter. Photophilous, does not tolerate darkening, is not picky about soils. For the winter they are laid on the ground, covered with burlap, roofing material or film. You can save the vine by hiding it in a ditch 15-20 cm… As you can see, grape care is available to everyone.
Propagating grapes by cuttings
The cultivation of grapes usually comes from cuttings. Cuttings are harvested in the fall with a thickness of 8-10 mmfrom a ripe vine with 4-5 buds. For 2 days they are soaked in water, and then put into storage in a basement or a pit, the temperature is up to +7. In the pit, it is better to cover it with sand or keep it on a rack in an open plastic bag. To speed up the cultivation of seedlings, you need to start preparing planting material from winter in room conditions on the south window. The optimum temperature is 26-28 degrees, watering in a week. So that the top layer of the cutting does not dry out, it is poured with paraffin. At the end of April, the seedlings begin to gradually harden. Landing in the ground on May 10-15. Seedlings can be grown outdoors. Roots appear on day 20.