- The prickly beauty of the hawthorn
- How it grows
- How hawthorn bears fruit
- We propagate the hawthorn ourselves
- We plant hawthorn correctly
- How to plant a hedge
- Hawthorn Healing Recipes
- Tincture of hawthorn flowers.
- Infusion of hawthorn flowers.
- Tincture of hawthorn fruit.
- Infusion of hawthorn fruits.
- Hawthorn jam.
- Hawthorn, mashed with sugar.
- Hawthorn juice.
- Hawthorn juice.
- Jam from fruits of hawthorn and Japanese quince.
The prickly beauty of the hawthorn
Somehow it so happened that hawthorns are grown in our gardens only for decorative purposes, planting and care for the purpose of obtaining medicinal raw materials were rare. It was only later that official medicine investigated the hawthorn berry and confirmed that its fruits really have a cardiological effect, and therefore are useful for functional disorders of cardiac activity, neuroses, and in the initial forms of hypertension. In addition, the preparations of this plant tone up the heart muscle, eliminate arrhythmia, tachycardia, reduce the excitability of the central nervous system, increase cerebral and coronary circulation, reduce pain, a feeling of heaviness and constriction in the heart and improve the general condition of patients.
It is also true that the common hawthorn is beautiful. In the spring it is magnificently decorated with white or pink flowers, and in the fall it is covered with a crimson outfit – all the branches of the plant are completely covered with tassels of spherical berries (up to1 cmin diameter) hanging on long stalks. Just like a lady dressed up in an elegant sundress. The people called the hawthorn the lady-tree. It was nicknamed hawthorn and the devil’s needle for very hard thorns of 1-2 cmat the bottom of the shoots. These are modified shortened shoots that have developed from axillary buds. This thorniness can be used by planting a hedge from a hawthorn. For a long time it will serve you no worse than a picket fence – hawthorn lives up to 200 years. And you will also attract birds to your site – the lush thickets of the lady-tree is one of the favorite nesting places. And hawthorn is attractive to bees, especially its flowers.
How it grows
In nature, this handsome man grows both as a tree and a bush, reaching a height of 45 meters… Occurs along forest edges, in clearings, on slopes, along the banks of rivers and streams. On the garden plot, it is better to form a single hawthorn plant in the form of a bush, then it is more convenient to pick berries. The formation of the crown is similar to that of the bird cherry.
Trees usually have a wide crown. The bark of the common hawthorn is brown or gray. The leaves are unusual – shiny, leathery, bright or dark green above, but lighter below. Against their background, white flowers blooming in May-June look good.
Among the variety of species (more than 80), the blood-red hawthorn is widely known and found everywhere. Only he is used for medicinal purposes. It was he who was called by the people affectionately a lady. But the lady is not afraid of frost, the hawthorn is frost-resistant and unpretentious: its powerful root system easily adapts to any soil. Planting and caring for the hawthorn is very simple. He only loves to keep the soil moist, but not indifferent to sunlight. These are all the conditions for a successful hawthorn cultivation.
How hawthorn bears fruit
Hawthorn fruits ripen in August-September. From a bush, you can collect up to 15-20 Kg… Only now fruiting in hawthorns begins from the 10th year after planting, until this time the harvest is rare, few berries are harvested. Other years are completely barren. Hawthorn fruits with a diameter of 13 cm, have a variety of shapes – spherical, oval, pear-shaped. They vary in taste, everything is determined by the type of hawthorn. The taste of blood-red hawthorn pulp is mealy, sweetish, slightly astringent. There are 1-5 hard seeds inside the fruit. Freshly harvested fruits are good to eat, but eating too many fruits can lead to chills, shortness of breath, and other painful symptoms.
We propagate the hawthorn ourselves
Hawthorn propagates by seeds, root suckers, root cuttings.
When propagating by seeds, seeds are sown in which the seeds are located. Due to the hard shell of the seeds, it is difficult for the seeds to germinate. Therefore, stratification is needed to improve seed germination. Do it like this. The bones are mixed with wet peat or sand in a ratio of 1: 3 in a small box, after which the box is transferred to a room with a temperature of 4-7 degrees (basement, refrigerator, space between the frames on the windowsill) and left for 3-4 months.
It is best to start stratification immediately after collection, in August. After that, you can immediately place the seeds in the substrate on the windowsill, occasionally watering the substrate to keep it moist.
Accelerates seed germination by washing the seeds in running water, as well as collecting seeds before the onset of fruit ripeness.
Often the reason for the lack of seedlings is that there are no seeds in the seeds, therefore the seeding rate of hawthorn is large – on 1 sq. meter 10-20 g… Seeds are sown to a depth of 23 cm, and the distance between the rows is 20-25 cm… Do not expect quick results, it happened that the seeds germinated only in the second year. Seedlings also grow slowly. They are grown for 3, and sometimes 4 years, until they form a fairly stable root system. Then they are transplanted to a permanent place.
When propagated by seeds, seedlings begin to bear fruit by 10 years, and when propagated by root suckers and root cuttings – by 3-4. However, with this method of propagation, seedlings do not always form their own root system. Propagation by root cuttings is carried out in autumn or early spring, for this they take roots with a diameter of 0.5-1 cm and cut them into cuttings 6-10 cm, planted with the thin end in the ground, the upper end of the cutting is left above the soil for 1 -2 cm, the best planting site is a garden bed, the soil is sandy. After planting, the soil must be watered and mulched to retain moisture.
We plant hawthorn correctly
If your hawthorn has taken root, it should be transplanted to a permanent place in the spring or autumn. For planting, they dig holes with a diameter50 cm and depth 40 cm… Before planting, the pits are filled with fertile soil mixed with organic and mineral fertilizers (10 Kg compost or manure and 100 gnitroammofoski). Long and broken roots are pruned to healthy wood and dipped in a mixture of clay and mullein. In 3-year-old seedlings, before planting, the side shoots and the top are cut off to 1/3 of the length.
How to plant a hedge
To lay a hedge, dig a trench 40-50 cm for single row and 1m for double-row hedges, depth 50-70 cm… If the excavated soil is infertile, peat is added to it, humus and the mixture is buried in a trench. Pull the cord, and dig a groove along it. For a single-row hedge, plants are planted with a distance in a row of 30-50 cm from each other, for double row – 50-70 cmplacing plants in rows in a checkerboard pattern.
It is recommended to plant plants at the age of 3-6 years. Desirable of one type and age: for a single-row hedge – 2-3-year-old seedlings 25-30 cm, for a two-row – larger. The hawthorn tolerates cutting and shaping well. Depending on the purpose, fences are of different heights – from 0.5 to5 m… Very decorative hedges 3-5 m – living walls, formed or growing freely.
In the first 2-3 years after planting, the hedge requires maintenance. Moreover, the processed strip of care should be on both sides by 50-70 cmwider than the hedge itself. Weeding and loosening the soil around the hedge should be a must. Two years after planting, your hedge needs to be fed: 2-4 Kg organic fertilizers per 1 square meter and mineral fertilizers – 40-60 g NPK.
Hawthorn Healing Recipes
Tincture of hawthorn flowers.
10 g pour freshly picked flowers 100 g70% alcohol or vodka. Insist 14 days, drain. Take 15-30 drops for 30-40 minutes. before meals 3 times a day.
Infusion of hawthorn flowers.
5 g(1 tablespoon) of dried raw materials pour 200 ml of boiling water. Insist. Take 1/2 cup for 30-40 minutes. before meals 2-3 times a day.
Tincture of hawthorn fruit.
10 g crushed dry raw materials pour 100 g70% alcohol or strong vodka. Insist 14 days, drain. Take 30-40 drops with water for 30-40 minutes. before meals 3-4 times a day.
Infusion of hawthorn fruits.
15 g(1 tablespoon) of crushed dry raw materials pour 200 ml of boiling water. Insist. Take 1/2 or 1/3 cup for 30-40 minutes. before meals 2-3 times a day. Hawthorn fruit extract25 gPour 100 ml of boiling water over crushed raw materials. Boil until the volume of the liquid is reduced by half. Take 30-40 drops in 30 minutes. before meals 3 times a day.
Sorted and washed ripe fruits (1 glass) are poured into a saucepan, 1/2 glass of water is added and boiled until softened. The broth is decanted into a separate bowl. Then rub through a colander, discard the seeds and peel, and mix the mashed mass with broth and sugar (0.9-1.0KGmashed mass and broth). Boil until thick sour cream, stirring constantly. It is advisable to add citric or tartaric acid during cooking (1-1.5 g on the 1 kg masses).
Hawthorn, mashed with sugar.
The fruits are blanched for 2-3 minutes. in boiling water or steam in a pressure cooker and wipe. TO1 kg puree add 0.3-0.5KGSahara. Then pasteurized in boiling water.
Take 1 kg fresh hawthorn fruit, 1 liter water, 50 ggranulated sugar. Pour well washed fruits0,5 lwater and cook over low heat for 1-2 hours, rub hot through a sieve. Add granulated sugar to the resulting puree, add water to volume1 liter, bring to a boil, cool. Use the juice as a medicinal and dietary drink, 1 – 2 glasses a day for insomnia, nervous excitement, high blood pressure.
The sorted washed fruits are loaded into a juicer. To improve the taste, they add up to 20% by weight of sea buckthorn, quince or Antonovka apples. Hot juice is poured into scalded bottles and hermetically sealed.
Washed and peeled fruits are dipped in hot syrup (400 g sugar on 1 lwater) and leave overnight. In the morning they are separated from the syrup and placed in scalded jars, and then poured with hot syrup, pasteurized in water and hermetically sealed.
Ripe and washed fruits are warmed up with a little water, and then passed through a manual juicer to crush the pulp and separate the seeds. Sugar is added to the resulting puree (1 kg on the 1 kgpuree, or to taste) and boiled over low heat to the desired consistency. At the end of cooking, add citric acid to taste. The finished product is stored in closed glass jars.
Jam from fruits of hawthorn and Japanese quince.
Hawthorn fruits and Japanese quince fruits, cut and peeled from seeds (according to 1 kg) is heated to soften with a little water, and then passed through a hand juicer to separate the pulp from the seeds and solids. On the1 kgthe resulting puree add 1-1.2 kg of sugar and boil until tender. In the same way, jam is made from hawthorn fruits with the addition of sea buckthorn, Nevezhin mountain ash or sour apples.
To make jam from hawthorn and apples, the amount of sugar is halved.