- We protect apple trees from moths and leafworms
- Decoctions of plants against aphids and suckers
- Apple flower beetle
- Mechanical methods against sawfly and codling moth
- Diseases of fruit plants – scab, powdery mildew, fruit rot
- What can a wet summer turn into?
- Agrotechnical methods of combating diseases of garden trees
- We protect the berries
We protect apple trees from moths and leafworms
Protecting berries and horticultural crops during the flowering period is very difficult. This is due to the fact that flowers are extremely delicate and susceptible to adverse conditions, plant organs, and the use of plant protection products against pests in the garden and garden can cause them to burn. In addition, bees and other pollinating insects, as well as beneficial insects – entomophages feed on flowering trees and bushes. Therefore, spraying at this time can adversely affect them.
During the flowering days of the apple tree, pests of the garden and vegetable garden with an extended hatching period of caterpillars, such as garden moths and leafworms, are most dangerous. It is not difficult to identify moths in time, you just have to clap your hands near the branches – the caterpillars will immediately raise their heads and freeze in this position, resembling a twig. When moving, they seem to measure the distance, hence their name. This pest will be dangerous if at the beginning of flowering there are three caterpillars per ten rosettes. A characteristic feature of leafworm caterpillars is their reaction to touch, when they quickly bend, fall from the leaf and hang on the cobweb.
In leafworms, either eggs hibernate on branches near the buds, or caterpillars in cracks in the bark and near the buds. In the moth, eggs also hibernate in cracks in the bark and near the kidneys. The caterpillars of leafworms and moths begin to harm from early spring, penetrating into blossoming buds. They will eat the buds, take on the buds, fold the leaves with a cobweb. Older caterpillars roughly eat leaves, leaving only the main veins intact. Against these pests, with a high number, the use of biological preparations is justified, but they should be used only in the evening, during the hours when bees do not fly.
Decoctions of plants against aphids and suckers
If you notice twisted and yellowed leaves, then aphids harm the apple trees. It causes the greatest harm to young trees. Shiny black aphid eggs hibernate in cracks in the bark, on trunks and branches. In early spring, aphid larvae settle on the underside of the unfolding leaves.
Apple sucker damages old fruiting apple trees. The larvae of the sucker, starting in early spring, suck the juice from the buds, leaves, buds, pedicels and pollute them with secretions called honeydew. They stick together the damaged parts of plants, do not allow them to develop normally. Sooty fungi settle on the secretions of the suckers, and all damaged organs of the apple tree are covered with a black coating.
In suckers, as in aphids, eggs hibernate, only not in cracks in the bark of branches and trunks, but at the base of the buds on young shoots.
By the time the flowering is over, the larvae of the suckers turn into adult flying individuals.
How to deal with them, because the use of biological preparations against aphids and suckers does not work? Use decoctions of herbal preparations, but it is very important to do this as early as possible, during the period of isolation of the buds, and spraying against aphids can be carried out immediately after flowering. During flowering, spray nothing. Mechanical methods of protection are quite effective against these pests. So, aphids accumulate on young branches, so do not forget about pruning basal shoots and tops on old apple trees.
In order to protect the aphid accumulation garden next year, from the end of June, put on trap belts of corrugated paper with a width of15 cmon the basis of skeletal branches and tree trunks. Do this immediately after flowering, before the females lay their overwintering eggs. In late September – early October, the hunting belts are removed and burned, and the bark under the belt is protected and the cleaning is destroyed.
With a strong accumulation of apple sucker after flowering, fumigation with tobacco smoke can be carried out – provided that fumigation is carried out in the entire dacha cooperative at the same time.
Apple flower beetle
I want to say about one more pest of apple trees, which is dangerous in cold springs, when flowering is delayed. These are apple blossom beetles. In such a spring, female beetles have time to lay their entire supply of eggs. Signs of damage caused by this pest: instead of snow-white flowers, drooping buds hang, as if frozen, withered, unblown buds. If a brown cap is removed from such a bud, a moving white larva is visible inside. It was she who glued the petals, ate all the stamens and the pistil.
Unfortunately, at this phase of the development of an apple flower, the fight against a flower beetle is difficult. Pay attention to these damages and remember that in the spring of next year, the number of this pest can be significantly reduced if, in the green cone phase (when green leaves are just starting to show through from the bud), shake the beetles onto the litter.
Mechanical methods against sawfly and codling moth
During the flowering period of apple trees, using simple and affordable mechanical methods, it is possible to reduce the harmfulness of the apple codling moth and the apple sawfly. The fact is that butterflies of the codling moth begin to fly at the end of flowering. Butterflies fly at night, and during the day they sit motionless in the crown of trees, where it is difficult to notice them. To catch butterflies in the evening (so that diurnal beneficial insects do not accidentally get in), jars filled with fermenting odorous substances are hung in the crowns of trees. In the morning, the jars are removed, the caught insects are taken out, and the mixture is stored in a closed container in a cool place until the evening.
Apple sawflies, which look like a wasp, fly out of cocoons at the beginning of flowering. They are especially active in sunny, warm weather, and early in the morning or in cloudy weather they are inactive and easily shaken off the trees. Thus, they, too, can be collected on a litter and destroyed.
All this that I have said is about pests that are dangerous for fruit trees, in this case, apple trees, during flowering. After flowering, if rainy weather with high air humidity is maintained, favorable conditions are created for the development of scab, fruit rot, powdery mildew, coccomycosis on cherries.
Diseases of fruit plants – scab, powdery mildew, fruit rot
Scab affects both leaves and fruits. Brownish-olive spots with a velvety coating are formed on the leaves. If the infection occurred in early spring or early summer, the spots are large, with late infection the spots are small. The fungus overwinters on fallen damaged leaves and on young shoots.
Powdery mildew affects inflorescences, leaves, ends of young shoots, very rarely fruits. It manifests itself in the form of a dirty white or reddish-powdery coating. Affected leaves are strongly underdeveloped, rolled up along the main vein, the shoots are bent, slow down growth. The fungus overwinters in the buds of affected shoots. Unlike scab, powdery mildew also develops well in dry summers. At night, when the air humidity rises sharply and dew falls.
If the summer is rainy and not very hot, a strong development of fruit rot is possible. The disease affects the fruits of pome and stone fruit crops. Infection of fruits with spores of fruit rot occurs in places of damage by insects, through cracks formed as a result of their damage by scab. It appears as a round brown rotting spot on the fruit. Already on the 2-3rd day, large grayish-dark pads appear on the surface of the spot, arranged in concentric circles. The fungus overwinters on affected fruits.
What can a wet summer turn into?
In the event of a wet summer, the following diseases can threaten cherries:
– Clusterosporosis. First, small brown spots form on the leaves, similar to injection marks, around the spot there is a blurry raspberry border, the leaves become full of holes. In diseased cherry fruits, the pulp stops growing, dries up to the very bone. The causative agent of the fungus overwinters on the affected shoots and branches.
– Coccomycosis. Small brown spots form on the leaves, which subsequently merge, often occupying the entire surface of the leaf. A white or pink coating forms on the underside. With a strong defeat, the trees begin premature leaf fall, sometimes 2 months earlier than natural, the trees do not give a normal harvest over the next 1-2 years.
Agrotechnical methods of combating diseases of garden trees
In amateur gardening, the main methods of combating fruit and stone fruit diseases are agrotechnical.
During the growing season, it is necessary to regularly inspect trees and manually remove shoots affected by powdery mildew, fruits affected by fruit rot. Cover the cut places with oil paint or garden pitch.
Cracks and wounds on the trunk and trunks should be disinfected by wetting with a solution of copper sulphate (300 gon the10 lwater) and cover with a mixture of clay and mullein (1:6). If infection with diseases occurred early, before flowering, and moderately warm rainy weather with fogs and high humidity persists during the summer, fungicides should be used after flowering to reduce the development of diseases – drugs against diseases. Against all spots, except for powdery mildew, in the period after flowering, you can apply 1% Bordeaux mixture (on100 g copper sulfate is added 100 g lime on 10 lwater), sulfur preparations, copper oxychloride, 90% w.p. (thirty-40 gon the10 lwater). Sulfur preparations are used against powdery mildew.
Before using fungicides, you need to know that none of the fungicides approved for use in the individual sector has only a protective effect, it is useless to treat with fungicides. Treatment gives a good result if the first spraying is carried out at the beginning of the manifestation of the disease.
We protect the berries
Protective measures are also needed on berry bushes during this period. After the flowering of the black currant, in order to destroy the pupae of the currant bud moth in the soil, they dig up the soil under the bushes. Now blackcurrant and gooseberry berries are becoming visible, damaged by moth caterpillars. They are prematurely colored, eaten away, entangled together with adjacent leaves with a thin cobweb. They must be collected and destroyed. Against aphids and leaf-eating caterpillars of moths, leafworms and sawflies, the use of herbal infusions and biological preparations gives a good effect.
As you know, raspberry and strawberry bushes cannot be sprayed with any chemical preparations during flowering and fruiting. Planting raspberries during the summer periodically inspect, identify and destroy bushes affected by viral diseases. They differ from healthy ones in that they are stunted, bushy, their leaves are yellow, chlorotic or severely deformed. On raspberries, the most dangerous pest is the raspberry beetle. You can reduce the number of beetles during raspberry budding by shaking them daily on the litter and destroying them.
Many who plant strawberries in recent years have encountered a rarely seen earlier disease – strawberry late blight, which affects all organs of the plant. The disease proceeds very quickly – from three to four days to a week and a half. Most often, the largest berries are affected. First, watery spots appear, lighter than healthy berry tissue (pale pink or even almost white in color, sometimes with a slight grayish tinge). The pulp of the affected berry feels rubbery to the touch. This is one of the main signs of strawberry late blight rot, which makes it easy to distinguish it from gray rot. It is easy to confuse a berry that is just starting to rot with a healthy one, since the berry affected by late blight does not have the browning and dusty gray coating characteristic of gray rot. If the rotten berries fall into the jam, then it acquires a bitter aftertaste.
Reduces the defeat of late blight and gray rot good plant care and an old folk remedy: before the berries ripen, lay out under the bushes of straw cutting or needles. And, of course, it is necessary to harvest ripe berries in a timely manner, burn straw and needles after harvesting, and destroy the affected berries. To limit the development of gray rot, you can water the soil with strong ash liquor (2-2.5 kgon the10 lwater) or dust the bases of the bushes and the soil under the bushes with fluffy lime (15-20 gper bush) twice: at the beginning of tying berries and at the beginning of ripening.