What do we know about garlic?
We seem to know everything about garlic. But the time comes for planting, and it becomes useful to remember its merits, the secrets of cultivation.
The nutritional benefits of garlic are widely known, there is a centuries-old experience of its medicinal use. Garlic phytoncides kill streptococci, staphylococci, typhoid bacteria, vibrio paracholerae, tubercle bacillus and other pathogenic microbes.
Garlic stimulates appetite, enhances the secretion of digestive enzymes and bile, promotes better absorption of food. Dry extract of garlic is part of the popular drug Allochol. The antitumor properties of garlic are being studied, and the research results are encouraging.
Varieties of garlic are divided into 3 groups: winter shooters, winter non-shooters and spring ones (they do not shoot at all). Each group of this plant has its own advantages and disadvantages. Winter garlic is the most productive, and caring for it is simple. Purchase varieties that are better zoned in the area. In fact, there are about two dozen varieties, and the most common are Yubileiny, Gribovsky, Dubkovsky, Bashkirsky 85. Of the new varieties – Alkor, which was created at the Siberian Research Institute of Plant Growing and Breeding. This is a mid-season shooter variety, bulb weight up to36 g, fruitful. Air bulbs – large bulbs. The question arises: when to plant garlic?
Planting winter garlic
Planting garlic before winter in the Non-Chernozem zone begins in the third decade of September and ends no later than October 15. But if the weather is dry and warm, then later. The main thing is that garlic in the fall, before the onset of stable cold weather, has time to develop a good root system, but God forbid it appears on the surface of the earth, germinate – it most likely will not survive the winter cold. Garlic planting dates may vary depending on the weather and region.
After which crop is it right to plant garlic? Excellent predecessors of garlic are pumpkin and legumes, tomatoes, early cabbage – in a word, those that are removed from the garden early and under which a lot of organic fertilizers have been applied since spring. It is most correct to return garlic to your garden bed after 4-5 years, and after onions planted on a turnip, you do not need to plant garlic, because. they suffer from common diseases.
preparing the ground
If there is a need to fertilize the garlic bed, then only humus or compost can be used, fresh manure – in no case. Soil preparation is as follows: the beds are dug up two weeks before planting, so that the soil has time to settle. After that, before planting, organic fertilizers are applied: urea – 10-12 g on the 1 m2, superphosphate – 25-30 g, potassium salt – 20-40 g. On acidic soils, 1-2 cups of dolomite flour are also added, on heavy soils – 1-2 buckets of peat and coarse sand.
When preparing the soil, one should not forget to loosen and level the bed well. If there is a danger of stagnant water, it is better to form a bed up to10 cm.
If the autumn is dry, and the planting dates are already known and after which crop the garlic will be planted, the bed is watered a few days before planting winter garlic to cause the germination of weeds, which are then weeded out. And so that these weeds germinate sooner, the bed can be covered with plastic wrap.
Planting garlic correctly
On the garden plan 3-4 rows through 20 cm each and make furrows 6 deep8 cm, after which, garlic cloves are planted at this depth without fail with the bottom down, not pressing into the ground, but lowering into the holes formed by the peg. The fact is that when indented, the earth under the tooth is compacted, and the tooth, having taken root, can reach the surface of the bed, as if to stand on its feet.
The teeth are placed in rows at a distance of 48 cmfrom each other, small – closer, large – away. But, of course, you need to plant large teeth – from large and medium-sized bulbs. If there is a suspicion that the garlic has been ill with something, then the planting bulbs are soaked for 12 hours in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. The bulbs are disassembled into teeth immediately before planting, otherwise the bottom of the clove will dry out, and it may not take root.
It is advisable to sprinkle the teeth in the furrows with humus, and then cover with soil. In the conditions of the Ural, Siberian climate, when garlic has to be planted without delay, since snow almost always falls on time, the bed with planted teeth is not closed before the onset of frost. But throwing coniferous paws will not be superfluous.
If winter garlic is constantly propagated only with teeth, then it can become more and more affected by diseases and degenerate. But there is an easy way to avoid this: you need to plant bulbs of arrowing varieties. The following year, single-toothed teeth are obtained from them, and renewed bulbs are already being grown from them. Bulbs are planted shallowly, and it is better to insulate the bed before frosts with spruce branches and straw. With the onset of temperatures close to zero in spring, the shelter is carefully removed to prevent the plants from warming up.
In the spring, immediately after the soil thaws, a complex mineral fertilizer is used to feed the garlic – 2 tbsp. spoons on1 m2.
Diseases and pests of garlic
Garlic saves from many ailments, but he himself is not spared from diseases. The most serious disease of garlic is bacterial. It affects the juicy tissue of winter garlic, and as a result, brown and brown sores appear on the teeth. Sick teeth take root poorly, winter poorly, in spring the tips of the leaves turn yellow, the yield decreases. To avoid this trouble, the teeth are etched before planting in a solution of copper sulphate and table salt, but the main thing is that the planting material must be carefully selected. Quick drying of the heads immediately after harvesting (in the sun or under a canopy) is also a good prevention of a bacterial disease.
The stem nematode is very harmful to garlic. These are thread-like, whitish worms, they are almost invisible, they are so small. These worms penetrate deep into young plants, which turn yellow and die, the bulb cracks, and the bottom collapses. During storage, the garlic becomes soft and rots.
If this happened to garlic, planting garlic before winter in its original place is possible only after some time – 3-4 years, and the garden bed before planting garlic in the fall must be treated with fluff lime or chalk, or dolomite flour (2 cups per 1 m2).
Before planting, you can pour the soil with a solution of table salt (3 tablespoons per 10 l water), based on 3 l on the 1 m2.
Some gardeners process garlic in this solution before planting: in 10 lwater is diluted with 3 tbsp. tablespoons of salt, add0.5 kg finely chopped fern, mix everything well, filter, immerse the garlic bulbs for 15-20 minutes, and then, without drying, plant them.
If the garlic is stored at elevated temperatures, it can develop black mold during this time and dry out completely. This happens most often with unripe garlic bulbs. Good drying after harvesting will protect the garlic from this disease, and if black mold does appear, the heads must be dried again and powdered with chalk.