The most vitamin berry
Sea buckthorn is a valuable berry crop. The beneficial properties of sea buckthorn are difficult to overestimate. Its medicinal fruits contain ascorbic acid (50-330 mg /100 g), vitamins P, B1, B2, B6, B-carotene. The latter is abundant in fruits with orange and red coloration. The presence of vitamin E (tocopherol) in them in an amount of 8-18 mg / 100 g is considered to be of particular value. The berries are used to obtain sea buckthorn oil, a valuable product with bactericidal properties. It contains unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, choline, betaine. Fat-soluble vitamins are found in higher concentrations than in pulp. Gardeners who have sea buckthorn growing on their site use the beneficial properties of this shrub to promote health.100 gsea buckthorn berries in excess cover the daily human need for vitamins. Sea buckthorn leaves contain a large amount of tannins, β-carotene and vitamin C. The extract from them has medicinal properties. They can be used to feed farm animals.
Sea buckthorn can be grown on slopes to protect soil from washout.
What you need to know about sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious plant. Male and female flowers are on different specimens. Life form – shrub or tree 1.5-5 meters… The crown is compact. The stems are prone to branching.
At a young age, all buds are vegetative, and it is difficult to determine the sex of the plant. Female generative buds have two covering scales. On male plants, the flower buds are larger and there are more covering scales on them.
On adult plants, vegetative buds are located in the upper part of the shoot and at its very base. The latter remain dormant, and the upper buds give rise to 3-7 shoots, which form a whorl. Of these, the strongest grow into skeletal ramifications. Their growth begins in mid-May. Most intense in June – early July. At the moment of growth attenuation (late July – first half of August), generative buds are laid in the leaf axils. The next year, they form overgrowing shoots 2-12 cmwith a bunch of flowers at the base. Their role is to supply the fruit with the products of photosynthesis. The weakest shoots dry up in the same year. Others die the next year after they hatch. Because of this, the central and lower parts of the shoots and, accordingly, the crown are exposed. The fruiting zone is shifted to the periphery.
The shrub blooms in early May and lasts 6-12 days. The flowers are unisexual, have no petals, and are inconspicuous. Pollination takes place with the help of the wind. The pollen productivity of the male pollinator variety Alei is high. The fruit of the sea buckthorn is a “false” achene. The pericarp is of economic value. It takes 12-15 weeks from the beginning of flowering to ripening. In the process of ripening, some of the fruits fall off and the number of ripe fruits is 20-35% of the developed female flowers. The shape of the fruit ranges from spherical to cylindrical. Weight of 100 fruits 20-100 g… Sea buckthorn bears fruit abundantly and regularly. With age, growth processes diminish, after which first small, and then large branches die off. At the same time, spinning buds emerge from the dormant buds, which replace the old ones. Their appearance further accelerates the aging of the branches located above.
The root system consists of long, weakly branching roots. Their location is superficial – to the depth40 cm… The diameter of the root system is 1.5-3 times the diameter of the crown. On the roots there are vegetative buds that can grow into shoots. This usually happens when the roots are damaged. Due to the root growth, sea buckthorn forms clumps. An important feature of sea buckthorn roots is the presence of nodule bacteria on them that assimilate atmospheric nitrogen.
Sea buckthorn is a highly winter-resistant plant. In the conditions of the Urals, it can withstand frosts down to -45 ° C. Flowers are not damaged by frost. Still, it is desirable to have protection from the north in the form of a forest or a row of tall trees.
Sea buckthorn is a moisture-loving plant, but at the same time it is drought-resistant. Due to its structure, the leaves evaporate less water. Under natural conditions (banks of mountain rivers), sea buckthorn bushes grow at a high level of groundwater. However, excessive moisture can delay growth processes and weaken tissue hardening. Waterlogging is unacceptable. Acceptable can be considered a minimum depth of groundwater of about60 cm…
Sea buckthorn is a light-loving plant. Growing under shaded conditions is undesirable, since it grows upward, weakly branches and comes into fruiting late. She reacts negatively to the proximity of trees and shrubs of the same height. Root shoots cannot withstand the shade of tall grasses.
Sea buckthorn can grow in a variety of soils. Not very cohesive air-permeable soils of light texture are preferred – light loams, sandy loam. The content of humus and phosphorus should be at least average.
Choosing the best variety
The first varieties of sea buckthorn Novost Altai, Dar Katuni, Golden Cob, Maslinichnaya and Vitaminnaya had round fruits of small or medium size: 0.37-0.57 g… The fruits of the current varieties have a cylindrical fruit shape and good biochemical characteristics. They are more convenient to assemble.
Zoned for the Urals and Siberia varieties Chuiskaya, Velikan, Zolotistaya Siberia, Trofimovskaya, Excellent. The recommended varieties are Obskaya, Panteleevskaya, Yantarnaya. Some of them are described in the table.
The varieties Botanicheskaya, Oranzhevaya, Radiant, and Lyubimaya have dry separation of fruits at the optimum time of collection. Long stalks in trees of varieties Orange, Tenga, Ayula, Chulyshmanka, Radiant. Other varieties can be planted. Sea buckthorn is a plastic culture, and it is likely that with proper care, they will feel good.
Choosing a landing site
For planting sea buckthorn, you should avoid micro-depressions and saucers where water stagnates. Areas in the shade of other plants, including the sea buckthorn itself, are unsuitable.
The planting can be grouped according to the 4×2 m scheme, with this arrangement it will be convenient to take care of the plantings. You can plant a whole row along the border of the site. The leaves and fruits of sea buckthorn are spectacular against the background of other trees and shrubs (for example, hawthorn).
Male plants should be allocated 5% of the plantation area. They are planted on the windward side of the garden. If there is a pollinator in nearby plots, then you do not need to plant it to yourself.
Preparing the soil and planting sea buckthorn
If possible, a plot for a sea buckthorn garden is cultivated. Organic fertilizers are applied in an amount of 5 kg / m2 for light and 10 kg / m2 for heavy ones. Of the minerals, it is enough to add a simple superphosphate 60 g / m2. In the fall, the site is dug up, after which pits are prepared for planting with a width of 50 and a depth40 cm…
1 bucket of humus should be added to the pit, 100 g double superphosphate and 300-500 glime. If the soil is clayey, additionally add 2 buckets of sand or ASG (sand and gravel mixture). The ingredients in the pit are mixed with the excavated soil.
Planting sea buckthorn should be done only in spring. When planting in autumn, there is a greater likelihood of plant death.
Saplings must be leafless, dry, with a vertical stem, at least 35 cm (second grade) and 50 cm(first). The number of roots, respectively, is not less than 3 and 5 pieces.
Before planting, the roots of seedlings can be dipped in a clay mash with the addition of mullein and water extract from the soil from under adult plants to infect the roots with tuberous bacteria. The landing technique is conventional. On light soils, the root collar is buried on5 cm… Since the root system of sea buckthorn has poor anchoring, the plant should be supported for several years.
Caring for the sea buckthorn crown is not difficult. Sea buckthorn itself forms a branched crown. It uses only sanitary and anti-aging pruning. The latter is performed at the age of 8 years and older. Remove old branches above the vertically growing branches of spinning top, or leave one lateral branch in a whorl on perennial wood. Cutting dry and broken branches can be done at any time, and rejuvenating pruning in the spring before bud break.
Soil for sea buckthorn
For gardeners, the best soil care option is a sod-humus maintenance system. If the soil was dug in the fall, then in the spring it is harrowed and leveled. After planting, the land is sown with lawn grasses. For their faster growth, fertilizers are applied before sowing.
Regardless of whether the tinning was artificial or natural, the grass stand is mowed when it reaches a height 15 cm… The cuttings serve as natural mulch. The sod-humus system is not laborious. It provides good air access to the roots. Root shoots do not appear, since soil cultivation and root injury are excluded.
Disease and pest control
Several years ago, there was no problem of protecting sea buckthorn from pests and diseases. But in the last few years, severe damage from the sea buckthorn fly has been noted.
Fly 4-5 mm, black, with a yellow head. Its larvae hibernate in false cocoons in the soil at a depth of up to10 cm… They pupate in the spring. Fly flight starts from the end of June and lasts until mid-August. In 14-25 days after emergence, the female lays eggs (more than 200 pieces), laying them one by one under the skin of the fruit. After a week, larvae hatch and eat away the flesh of the fruit. During the feeding period lasting a month, the larva can damage neighboring fruits. After that, it falls to the ground and goes into the soil, where it forms a false cocoon and hibernates.
Pests can spread from soil adhering to the roots of seedlings. Root shoots of adult plants should not be used as planting material. The technology of growing seedlings in nurseries excludes this way of spreading the pest.
To infect the roots with root nodule bacteria, an aqueous extract of soil from under adult plants should be used. Place a portion of the soil in an airtight container, add water, shake, strain the water, water the seedling with it, or use it to prepare a clay chatterbox.
In young and fruitful private gardens, you can use the Actellik insecticide during the mass flight of flies. For example, in early and mid-July.
Sea buckthorn can be affected by fusarium wilting. Separate branches are affected first. Leaves turn yellow and fall on them prematurely. Fruits are early stained and wither. Sooner or later, the plant dies.
Withering is possible on heavy waterlogged soils. Bushes with the first symptoms of the disease must be removed and burned.
Harvesting is carried out when the fruits are fully ripe from late August to mid-September. Fruiting twigs with low growth can be cut off entirely and collected from them indoors. They usually dry out after fruiting. It will go faster if you use an umbrella suspended by a curved handle when collecting fruits. Harvesting sea buckthorn is certainly not fun, but the harvest is worth it. Eat to your health.