Often, gardeners are faced with the problem of determining the timing of planting seeds for seedlings. Growing each crop has its own characteristics, taking into account which you can get well-developed, strong seedlings and a rich harvest of vegetables.Content:
Seeds are sown for seedlings of the following crops:
- cucumber ;
- tomatoes ;
- marrow ;
- eggplant ;
- pepper ;
- cabbage (all types);
- root celery.
According to the lunar calendar, sowing seeds of vegetable crops is carried out in the following terms:
|tomatoes||2-5; 8; eleven; thirty; 31.||1-4; 7; 8; eighteen; 22; 26; 27; 28.||22; 25; 26.||eighteen; 21; 22; 27; 29;30.|
|cucumbers||1-10||25; 27.||21; 24; 26.||16; twenty; 22; 27; 29.|
|pepper||15-26.||15; 17; 22;26.||15-27.||eighteen; 22; 27; 28; thirty.|
|eggplant||15-25.||eighteen; twenty; 25.||21; 25; 26.||17; 22; 27; 29; thirty.|
|zucchini, squash||—||17; 25; 26;||twenty; 24; 25.||17; 21; 26; 29; thirty.|
|white cabbage, cauliflower||—||—||five; 6; 19; twenty; 23; 25.||7-9; 19-27.|
- Sowing seeds for seedlings in January
- Sowing seeds in February
- March sowing vegetable seeds
- Planting vegetables in April
- Soil preparation for vegetable seedlings
- soil for tomatoes
- soil for pepper
- soil for cabbage
- Soil for eggplant
- Preparing seeds for sowing
- Tanks for sowing seeds
- Sowing seeds for seedlings
- growing season
- Seed germination time
- seedling care
- Planting seedlings in open ground
- Bed preparation
- Seed germination time
Sowing seeds for seedlings in January
For sowing seedlings at home, such crops are suitable as:
- strawberries .
When planting crops for seedlings, it is necessary to take into account the lack of natural light during this period. Therefore, it is necessary to take care of the organization of additional lighting in advance.
In heated greenhouses in January they sow:
- tomatoes (January 30);
- eggplant (January 30);
- pepper (January 30);
- green peas (January 28);
- cucumbers (January 21);
- black onion (January 21);
- asparagus beans (January 28).
In addition to these crops, January 25 and 27 are sown:
- onion sets for greens;
- leaf mustard;
Sowing seeds in February
In February, seeds of vegetable crops with a long growing season are sown for seedlings. Crops such as eggplant and sweet peppers are sown on February 10, 14, 26. From the moment of sowing to planting in open ground, 65-80 days should pass.
Root celery is planted to a permanent place of growth at the age of 72-80 days. Sowing seeds is carried out on February 7, 10, 14.
In February, cucumber seeds are sown for seedlings that do not require pollination by insects. These varieties include:
- Relay race;
March sowing vegetable seeds
In March, the sowing period for vegetable crops grown in the middle lane. Since March 15, seeds of early ripe varieties of tomatoes are sown, intended for planting under a film. For polycarbonate greenhouses, seeds of tall and determinant varieties are sown at the end of March.
A favorable day for sowing seeds is March 11.
Seeds of cucumbers intended for planting under a film are sown on open beds on March 25. For these purposes, it is better to use seeds that have been stored for two to three years. Before sowing, it is recommended to soak the seeds in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes.
White cabbage of early varieties is sown for seedlings from March 11.
Broccoli and cauliflower are sown 14 days after white cabbage (March 25).
Planting vegetables in April
In April, the following crops are planted in the thawed soil:
- onion sets;
It is recommended to sow only frost-resistant crops during this period, since the probability of frost is high. The greens sown in April will be ready to serve on the table in 21 days. Early maturing varieties should be planted. To speed up the germination of the beds, it is recommended to water with warm water.
- radishes and turnips—April 7;
- greenery – April 21st.
Low-growing tomatoes intended for growing in open beds are sown in greenhouses on April 21. During this period, you can sow low, early-ripening sweet pepper varieties and early-ripening eggplant varieties for seedlings. These include:
- King of the North;
- Purple miracle.
From the moment of the first shoots to the period of fruiting, 92-100 days pass.
For a seedless method of cultivation, cucumber seeds are sown. Sowing is carried out on April 21. The first 14 days, the seed wells are covered with cut plastic bottles.
In the second decade of April, seedlings are planted in cold nurseries;
- Brussels sprouts;
After 10 days (April 21) they plant:
- medium and late-ripening broccoli;
- late red cabbage;
- late white cabbage.
Cabbage is recommended to be sown immediately on open beds, deepening into the hole at once 2-3 seeds. When shoots appear, the planting is thinned out.
Soil preparation for vegetable seedlings
The requirements for the soil intended for vegetables of any crops are almost the same: the soil must be light, loose, with good oxygen permeability;
- fertile, rich in nutrients;
- should not contain toxins;
- have a certain Ph level;
- absence of clay.
soil for tomatoes
For growing tomato seedlings, experienced gardeners recommend taking garden land on which they previously grew:
This soil is mixed in equal proportions with peat, coarse river sand, a little ash is added to normalize the acidity level. The finished soil is watered with a 20% solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
soil for pepper
For growing peppers, a soil mixture prepared in the following proportions is best suited:
- sod land – 1 part;
- manure – 1 part;
- sawdust – 1 part;
- sand – 1 part.
Before use, it is recommended to ignite the soil in the oven at a temperature not exceeding 90 degrees for disinfection purposes.
soil for cabbage
The soil for sowing cabbage seeds is prepared in the following proportion:
- sod land – 1 part;
- high peat – 1 part;
- humus – 2 parts;
- river sand – 0.5 parts.
Add to a bucket of ready-made soil mixture:
- superphosphate – 70 grams;
- ash – 1 glass.
Soil for eggplant
To grow eggplant in seedlings, we make up the soil mixture by combining the ingredients in the following proportions:
- 2 parts of turf land;
- 2 parts of humus or compost;
- 1 part peat;
- 1 part sand;
- 1 part sawdust;
- some ash .
Preparing seeds for sowing
In order to grow good seedlings, it is necessary to properly prepare them for sowing. Seed preparation consists of several stages:
- Selection of quality seeds . To select high-quality seeds, you need to place them for 20 minutes in a saline solution. The seeds that float to the surface are removed, as they are not suitable for sowing and will not give seedlings. The seeds that have sunk to the bottom are washed under running water.
- Disinfection. In order to prevent all kinds of diseases, the seeds are soaked for 15 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, or for 10 minutes in 2% hydrogen peroxide. Then the seeds are treated with a growth stimulator.
- Soaking . After processing, the seeds are wrapped in a cloth and soaked in water at room temperature for 12 hours. During this time, the seeds are removed from the water three times, the water is changed, and the napkin is unfolded for a while to allow the seeds to ventilate.
- Germination. To get friendly shoots and an earlier harvest, the seeds must be germinated. Spread the soaked seeds on a damp rag and leave them until germination. At the time of germination, the temperature in the room should be at least +20 degrees.
- hardening. This procedure is performed in order to improve the adaptation of seedlings to changes in weather conditions and increase yields. After germination, the seeds in a tissue napkin are placed in a plastic bag and placed in the refrigerator (temperature +2 degrees) for 12 hours.
- Warming up. After the time has elapsed, the seeds are taken out and placed next to the heating devices for 14 hours. The temperature during heating should not be lower than +22 degrees.
Tanks for sowing seeds
For sowing seeds, you can use:
- Peat tablets . They are placed in a container in such a way that the notch is at the top of the tablet, filled with water at room temperature and left for 10-15 minutes until completely swollen. Seeds are placed in the middle of the recess.
- Peat pots . The advantage of growing seedlings in them is that the seedlings do not require picking. Planted in the soil along with pots.
- Rectangular wooden boxes with holes in the bottom to remove excess moisture from the soil. The advantage of such containers is that you can grow a large number of seedlings, while simultaneously caring for all the seedlings.
- Cassettes for seedlings with a pallet . Do not take up much space, easy to use. The most convenient to use cassettes with cells up to 6 cm and a depth of 10 cm.
- Disposable cups. Ease of use lies in the fact that the seedlings do not require picking.
- Ceramic pots . Used when growing a small amount of seedlings. The disadvantage of such containers is that they take up a lot of space.
Containers before use are recommended to be disinfected with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
The containers chosen for growing seedlings are filled 2/3 with the prepared soil mixture, slightly compacted and moistened. Allow moisture to completely soak into the soil, then make grooves 10 mm deep. Seeds are sown in grooves and covered with a thin layer of soil, or calcined sand. Too small ones are mixed with sand in a ratio of 1:5 and scattered over the surface. Moisten the soil with a spray bottle. To create greenhouse conditions, containers are covered with polyethylene. Polyethylene is removed daily for a short time to ventilate the seedlings and moisten the soil, as needed. When shoots appear, the polyethylene is removed.
Each vegetable crop has different growing seasons. In terms of maturity, plants can be:
- early ripe;
This feature must be taken into account when sowing seeds for seedlings. The average length of the growing season is:
- sweet pepper – 92-140 days;
- tomatoes – 85-140 days;
- eggplant – 100-145 days;
- white cabbage – 55-185 days.
Seed germination time
The timing of seed germination depends on their preparation for planting, and on the vegetable crop itself. On average, the emergence of seedlings is as follows:
- tomatoes—4 to 6 days;
- eggplant – from 7 to 10 days;
- sweet pepper – from 10 to 15 days;
- white cabbage – from 4 to 6 days.
For good seed germination, the temperature in the room should be from +22 to +25 in the daytime and not lower than +18 at night. After the emergence of seedlings, the containers are moved to a more lit place.
For the full development of seedlings, it is necessary that daylight hours during the growth period be at least 12 hours. On cloudy days and in winter, it is necessary to organize additional lighting, since a lack of light will cause inhibition of development and excessive stretching of seedlings. To avoid this problem, you can use fluorescent lamps, the advantage of which is that they do not heat the air, or phytolamps. Install them over containers with seedlings at a distance of 25 cm from the containers.
Optimal re-lighting time:
- for tomatoes – from 15 to 17 hours;
- for peppers and eggplants, from 11 to 13 hours.
Watering should be done regularly to prevent the soil from drying out. The regularity of watering is determined by the temperature in the room and the humidity of the air. Seedlings should be watered when the topsoil dries out. Seedlings do not need to be flooded, watering should be moderately plentiful, since excessive moisture can lead to the development of fungal diseases and root rot.
After watering, it is necessary to carefully loosen the soil in order to prevent the formation of a crust on the soil surface, which prevents the penetration of oxygen to the roots of the seedlings.
If the seedlings have two true leaves, it is necessary to dive. If the seeds are planted in peat tablets or disposable cups, this is not necessary. The transplant is carried out with a clod of earth, so as not to damage the still fragile roots of the plant.
Top dressing is carried out several times per season. The first top dressing is carried out two weeks after picking. For these purposes, mineral complex fertilizers for seedlings, or organic fertilizers are used. Top dressing is applied in the form of a solution during morning watering. Subsequent top dressing is carried out at intervals of 15 days until the seedlings are transplanted into open ground.
Hardening is carried out two weeks before transplanting seedlings to a permanent place of growth. In good weather, the plant is taken out into the street. Initially, the time spent in the fresh air is no more than 20 minutes. The time interval is gradually increased. Before transplanting, the seedlings are left outdoors all night. When placing containers in the fresh air, it is necessary to protect the seedlings from direct sunlight and drafts.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Transplantation to a permanent place of growth is carried out after the establishment of warm weather, when the threat of frost has passed. Each vegetable crop has its own transplant dates, depending on the age of the seedlings:
- Tomatoes are planted from early to mid-June. The interval between seedlings is 40-45 cm, between rows is 60-75 cm. They are transplanted into greenhouses in the second decade of May.
- Peppers are transplanted in early June. The distance between plants is 30-40 cm, between rows is 60-70 cm. Transplantation into greenhouses is carried out at the end of May.
- Eggplant is planted in the beds in the first half of June. In greenhouses – at the end of May. The distance between seedlings is 35-40 cm, between rows is up to 60 cm.
- Cucumber in open ground is transplanted in early June, in greenhouses – in the second decade of May. Row spacing 15-20 cm, between rows 70-90 cm.
- early – the first days of May;
- medium – early June;
- late – mid-May.
The distance between seedlings is 45-50 cm, between rows is 55-70 cm.
The soil in the beds is prepared in advance. They dig in the fall on a spade bayonet and leave until spring. In the spring, the beds are watered with a hot 20% solution of potassium permanganate, and laid out on 1 sq. meter 3.5-4 kg of manure or humus, and 1 cup of ash. The soil is dug up again, leveled with a rake. Holes are made in the prepared soil and seedlings are planted.
Seed germination time
Each vegetable crop has different periods during which the culture does not lose its germination:
- tomato seeds remain viable for 5-6 years;
- pumpkin and squash remain viable for 6-8 years;
- cabbage has a seed shelf life of 4-5 years;
- pepper remains viable for 3 years;
- cucumbers remain viable for 6-8 years;
- Eggplants are suitable for sowing for 3-5 years.
Growing seedlings is a laborious process, however, if you follow the rules of planting and care, you can provide yourself with a rich harvest of vegetables.