Agricultural machinery is an indispensable assistant both during field work and at the dacha. This technique has various modifications and working functions. High-quality agricultural machinery is primarily characterized by high quality and long service life.
Agricultural machines are used for preparing the soil, planting crops. For the care of the acreage, harvesting. Agricultural machines come in several types. They are applied in the following order:
~ Tillage machines – such machines make the soil loose, remove all weeds on it, and also level the soil surface.
~ Fertilizer machines – it is clear from the name that such machines add fertilizers to the soil to improve the quality of yields.
~ Seeding machines – for proper seeding from a technological point of view, certain features should be adhered to. Uniformity, depth and other sowing standards. Such machines are used for such functions.
~ Forage harvesting machines – animals in the stall period have the same nutritional requirements as during the pasture period. Such machines are used for foraging without loss of nutritional properties.
~ Irrigation machines – soil fertility and, accordingly, the amount of harvest directly depends on water supply. Using machines for watering plants, they receive root and air nutrition.
~ Chemical protection machines — such machines introduce chemicals into the soil to protect plants from diseases and all kinds of pests.
~ Grain harvesters are perhaps the most famous agricultural machines. Combine harvesters are used for harvesting cereals, cereals and legumes. Before the advent of combine harvesters, several machines were used for harvesting, now the combine has included all the functions. This is an indispensable technique for harvesting grain crops.
~ Grain processing machines – to store grain, it needs to be dried and separated from various impurities. Such machines are used for these purposes.
The most popular are the JF-STOLL FCT 1050 ProTec forage harvesters with pick-up and JF-STOLL FCT 1350 models with pick-up and drawbar hitch.
It is important to know that these models are equipped with steel knives of the highest quality, contra cutting plate and sharpening stone with a particularly quick installation. There is also the possibility of reversing.
The JF-STOLL forage harvesters are so productive:
- The pick-up lift is hydraulic;
- The wide rotor with knives that are arranged in specific sections for quick changeover;
- Expanding feed rollers in the chopping cylinder.
Such harvester models can also be equipped with corn and grass cutterbar.
A great advantage is that the JF-STOLL forage harvesters, due to the special chopping methods, save much energy.
The BiG X self-propelled field chopper, the XDisc straight cut header and the EasyFlow pick-up are all noteworthy for their high operational quality.
KRONE forage harvesters stand out for their high output, robust design and excellent quality of chopping as well as their operating comfort.
The BiG X self-propelled forage harvester is built and developed using innovative technology to go much faster and at lower engine speeds. This results in significant fuel savings.
This model also has the ability to adjust the cutting length directly on the fly.
An important advantage among KRONE pick-up machines is the total lack of complicated mechanisms, which reduces the number of parts to be replaced on a regular basis and which are subject to wear and tear.
These machines are used for the fodder of cattle. According to statistics, milking cows, which bring high productivity, consume significantly more feed than dry cows.
Also experts note that cows chew food for ten hours every day. If they are fed with roughage, this time is reduced to eight hours a day.
Thus, it is possible to meet the nutrient requirements of cows and reduce the use of concentrated feed.
Potato harvesters are trailed units that are designed to dig potatoes out of the soil and clean the potatoes from the ground, collect the potatoes in special hoppers and then unload the potatoes into special vehicles.
The tubers are lifted with special diggers with a knife and a copying roller. The potato harvester separates the haulm, soil and weeds from the potatoes by means of a sorter and a strainer.
Differentiate potato harvesters elevator and bunker, also single or double row.
Some models of potato harvesters are equipped with an attachment for harvesting onions and carrots.
The Grimme single row potato harvesters SE 75-20, SE 75-30, SE 75-40 and SE 75/85-55.
The Grimme SE 75/85-55 potato harvesters have the following features:
- A side-mounted under-harvester;
- Grimme – digital technology;
- A hopper with a capacity of about six tons
- The intake channel is seventy-five centimeters wide or eighty-five centimeters wide.
Such machines are considered the most popular harvesters for harvesting potatoes, because they have a special undercutting device.
Machines models Grimme are of good quality, high productivity, careful handling of the harvested crops.
The Grimme SE 75/85-55 series potato harvester has a high capacity and is therefore the best option for farmers who rent out machinery.
The first tests of this machine were carried out at the harvesting in 2005. Such technical developments that were used in the production of the potato harvester, proved its productivity and were able to withstand absolutely all the necessary tests.
Another important innovation is the reduction of potato height drop from one to the second row. This technology preserves the integrity of the root crops themselves.
The integrated tilt levelling facilitates uniform sifting of the soil and makes the job as comfortable as possible.
As an optional extra, an inspection table is supplied, which has a much greater capacity – up to eighty-five centimetres wide.
Combine harvester is a complex machine for grain harvesting (reaper-thresher), which performs simultaneously and consistently in a continuous flow: cutting grain, feeding them to the threshing unit itself, threshing grain from the collected ears, separation from all impurities, transportation of already clean processed grain into the hopper, where the mechanical unloading occurs.
This is one of the most important and necessary machines in agriculture, which can perform several different operations simultaneously.
So, for example, such a harvester collects ears, beats out the grains and cleans the last.
This complex multifunctional machine performs the functions of three, but simpler machines at once – a windrower, a reaper, a thresher.
To any combine harvesters for grain harvesting release special additional devices, which further allow to collect a variety of crops of agriculture, not only grains.
Modern grain harvesters first appeared in the United States back in the year one thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight.
Mr. Lane claimed the first patent for the creation of a complex combined machine for grain harvesting and more.
Such a machine would have to perform several functions simultaneously – to cut the ears, thresh them, and clean the grain. But the machine was never built.
In the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, Verg and Carpenter invented the first combine harvester that exists today. It was mounted on a four-wheeled wagon and used a rotating threshing drum to drive a cutting unit. All this was accomplished by some kind of transmission from the rear wheels of the combine.
In the same year, but a little later, Moore and Hascal won a patent for a machine as close to the modern combine model as possible.
Already in the year one thousand fifty-four, this model harvester was used in the state of California and harvested about two hundred and forty hectares of grain.
Until the sixty-seventh year of the nineteenth century, the design and creation of such harvesters was carried out exclusively in the eastern part of America.
In seventy-five of the nineteenth century in the state of California, the Peterson-designed combine was much more recognized than the combines of other inventors. And at that time it became the main machinery for harvesting grain.
So it was from the nineteenth century that the combine harvester began its development and became the main machine in agriculture.
The potato planter – a handy machine for agriculture
What is this indispensable machine in any agriculture? The potato planter is a machine for planting unseeded potatoes.
Its principle of operation is as follows. The furrow is dug with a special keel furrow cutter and at the same time the whole or cut tubers are grasped, then they are thrown into the opener, from where the planting material is poured into the ground with the set pitch.
After that, special trowels, which are slightly behind, bury the potatoes with earth. The planting step is set with the help of sprockets, which have different diameters.
The angle between the discs in the planter is also adjustable. Potato planters are used for uniform planting in rows into pre-created ridges as well as for smooth planting.
And except for direct introduction of potato tubers into the soil, it can perform some more functions, namely, to introduce fertilizers and minerals into the soil that will increase the yield.
Potato planters can be of different configuration, as adapted for small volumes of planting in one or two rows, and serious industrial units for four-row planting of potatoes, equipped with support-driven wheels with high capacity hoppers.
The number of tubers planted in one go depends on the volume of the hopper. Some farmers have learned how to make potato planters with their own hands.
These are different in technical terms machines, however, some of them are very effective. Most often you can find potato planters for a power tiller.
So, you have decided to buy this machine. First of all, you need to choose the best option for your plot, depending on the planned volumes.
Care for this machine and the process of operation itself is extremely elementary. Of course, it is necessary to periodically subject to the technical inspection, possible minor repairs or replacement of parts, and for this purpose it is better to show the potato planter to specialists in the service center.
As a rule, all major manufacturers have their technical centers near the end user, and in this way you will receive both a quality guarantee of the work carried out on your machine and the assurance that only original spare parts have been used for repairs and that they have been installed with the utmost care.
And in such centers, which are engaged in the sale of equipment for agriculture, the prices are more than acceptable. They will also help you choose the best option for you and provide free advice on working with their equipment.
Design features of beet loaders
A beet loader is a machine that collects beets from swaths and piles, and has the task of pre-cleaning the beets from the ground and then loading them into a vehicle.
This cleaning of the haulm and the soil gives the possibility to increase the useful mass of the root crops by 8-10% when delivering them to the sugar factories.
These agricultural machines are subdivided into mobile, which operate from the PTO of the tractor, and stationary, operating at the expense of the engine.
The most common in the former Soviet Union are mounted mobile sugar beet loaders, they are hinged on an average tractor, equipped with a walker.
They, in turn, are divided into units of periodic and continuous operation. Those that work according to the principle of continuous operation are equipped with a pick-up mechanism, the so-called “feeder” of the rotary type, as well as bar cleaning conveyors.
The best known are SPS 4.2 beet loaders of various configurations.
The batch loader has a screw cleaner and a rake type feeder.
The feeder works as follows: it picks up roots from a pile and sends them to the longitudinal conveyor, where they already go to the cross conveyor belt, and then to the loading elevator.
From the elevator, the beets are dumped into the back of a nearby vehicle. Another type of sugar beet loader is self-propelled and consists of a self-propelled chassis with a frame on which a tractor with removed drive wheels and a hydraulic thinner, rear suspension and front axle mechanisms, front pneumatic drive wheels and a manual control mechanism.
In addition, there is a rotary cam feeder, with the possibility of active removal by means of a beater shaft equipped with raking shields as well as support wheels; a receiving auger conveyor; a longitudinal rod-type conveyor with scrapers; auger cleaning device consisting of a root spreader, feeder and auger cleaner; a discharging rod elevator with scrapers; tractor PTO transmission; hydraulic system; feeder lifting unit; counterweights tanks; automatic loading controller and electrical equipment.
As a rule, the standard width of this machine varies from 2.1 to 3.3 m, which is very convenient, and at this width the average productivity is 50 to 60 tons per hour.
Loading can be up to three meters high, and the beet loader moves at a speed of 0.25 km/h.
A tractor driver and one or two workers are needed to operate a standard beet loader.